The agreement includes a commitment by all countries to reduce emissions and cooperate to adapt to the effects of climate change and calls on countries to strengthen their commitments over time. The agreement provides a way for developed countries to assist developing countries in their climate change and adaptation efforts, while creating a framework to transparently monitor and report on countries` climate goals. The 21st Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP 21), held in Paris in 2015, concluded with the adoption of the Decision and the Paris Agreement. The agreement entered into force in November 2016 and will apply from 2020. The aim is to keep the increase in global temperature well below 2°C. The aim is to achieve this by increasing the capacity to adapt to the negative effects of climate change and by promoting climate resilience and low-carbon development. To achieve the agreed objectives, the Paris Agreement establishes a strengthened transparency framework to promote mutual trust and promote the effective implementation of the Agreement, enhance clarity and facilitate the monitoring of progress. While the expanded transparency framework is universal, as is the global inventory to be held every five years, the framework aims to provide “integrated flexibility” to distinguish between the capacities of developed and developing countries. In this context, the Paris Agreement includes provisions to improve the capacity building framework.  The agreement recognises the different circumstances of some countries and notes in particular that the technical expert review for each country takes into account that country`s specific reporting capacity.  The agreement also develops an initiative to enhance transparency to help developing countries put in place the institutions and processes necessary to comply with the transparency framework.
 To contribute to the objectives of the agreement, countries submitted comprehensive national climate change plans (national contributions, CNN). These are not yet sufficient to meet the temperature targets, but the agreement sets out the way forward. The agreement recognises the role of non-climate change stakeholders, including cities, other sub-national authorities, civil society, the private sector and others. . . .